Heat radiation system
Already when you plan your home, you should decide about your heating system and thereby also decide which heat radiation system you want to use. The basis difference between low-temperature systems and others is that low-temperature systems require a different heat radiation system than high-temperature systems.
- Heat radiation systems with large radiation surfaces and high radiation save energy.
- Despite lower room temperatures (and less energy consumed), similar perception of warmth.
- Less air circulation means less dust (allergy).
- Contrary to convection systems, less warming of air (convection requires more energy)
- Enables reasonable integration of a solar system.
- Advantages are easy regulation with radiator thermostat valves and speed of system
- Drawback is high convection component.
- Low-temperature systems in old structures require large radiation surfaces.
- Old radiators usually have very high temperatures (over 50° C) and the drawback of convection.
- In new construction, a low-temperature system is recommended.
- Regarding sizing and arrangement of radiators:
- For low-temperature systems require large radiation surfaces (varies according to the thermal insulation).
- Radiators are available in many designs and colors.
- Windows should be well insulating if a radiator is located under them.
- usually smaller
- require higher infeed temperatures
- create greater air movement and dust rather than radiated heat
- not recommended for reasons of comfort
Baseboard convection heating:
- heat walls via air convection
- additional drawback: block parts of the wall
- high-temperature systems
Surface heating system
(wall, floor or ceiling heating systems)
In general, large-surface radiator surfaces at low temperature give people a feeling of well-being. Surface heating systems cause less convection and enable comfortable surface temperatures of the surrounding walls and floors.
- In well-insulated houses, infeed temperatures of 30 – 40° C suffice.
- For floor heating, ensure good insulation if the room underneath is not heated.
- In living and office spaces, for physiological reasons the floor surface temperature must not exceed 27° C.
- Any floor covering over floor heating must have low thermal resistance (insulation). Ideal materials are stone and tiles. For wooden floors, floor heating compatible parquet should be used.
- Thin-bed heating mats work with electricity. They only slightly raise the floor level.
- Plan wall heating carefully. It should extend to at most head height, and up to that level you cannot install built-in furniture; good insulation of outside walls is required.
- Ceiling heating systems create heat in the area of the head – not recommended for physiological reasons.
- Wall heating has two major advantages over floor heating: They are less sluggish because only the plaster is between the heating pipes and the room, and they enable targeted positioning of the heating surface, i.e., exactly where you want it, say, around the seating area of the living room.
- The snug comfort of a tile stove is due to its high radiant component.
- You must plan the heating phase, for the system is rather sluggish.
- Automatic firing systems are available that allow preheating as desired.
- Provide an exhaust thermostat in the exhaust pipe to the chimney; this lets you automatically switch off the floor heating already in the preheating phase.
Infrared heating system
- high portion of infrared radiation corresponds to the sun’s warmth
- works with electricity
- can be installed in the floor, wall or as a marble or tile stove
The radiant heat of low-temperature systems promotes a feeling of well-being.